The Paradigm Shifts in Intelligence: From 1800 to Present

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Madison K. Johnston


This article reviews the evolution of intelligence gathering methods from the late 1800’s to the Cold War. While the changes in these methods can be directly connected to the development of improved technology and changing ideology, the concerns and arguments around these methods have remained the same. The progress of time blurred the lines between foreign and domestic actions. At the same time, perceived threats to nations moved from external to internal as information and communicating became easier to access. Through the years, the field of intelligence has gotten more complex as ideology, institutions, and technology have become increasingly interconnected and diverse.

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